Research Supporting Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR)

TNR is a research proven technique to humanely dealing with stray and feral cats!

 1.) Zaunbrecher, K., & R. Smith, "Neutering of Feral Cats as an Alternative to Eradication Programs," Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association, 203, No 3, 8/1/93, 449-452.

2.) Hughes, Kathy L., & Slater Margaret R., "Implementation of a Feral Cat Management Program on a University Campus," Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, Volume 5, Issue 1, 1/2002, 15-28.

3.) Levy, J.ulie K., Gale, David W., & Gale, Leslie A., “Evaluation of the effect of a long-term trap-neuter-return and adoption program on a free-roaming cat population,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 222, No. 1, 1/1/2003, 42-46.

4.) Foley, P., Foley, J.E., Levy, J.K., & Paik, T., "Analysis of the impact of trap-neuter-return programs on populations of feral cats," Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, V227, No.11, 2005, 1775-1781.

5.) Levy, J.K., &Crawford, P.C., "Humane Strategies for controlling feral cat populations," Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, V225, No. 9, 2004, 1354-60.

6.) Natoli, E., Maragliano, L., Cariola, G., Bonanni, R., Cafazzo, S., & Fantini, C., "Management of feral domestic cats in the urban environment of Rome (Italy)" Prev Vet Med, V77(3-4), 2006, 180-5.

7.) Neville P.F., & Remfry, J., "Effect of neutering on two groups of feral cats," Vet Rec, V114(18), 1984, 447-50.

8.) Robertson, S.A., "A review of feral cat control," J Feline Med Surg, V10(4), 2008, 366-75.

9.) Nutter, F.B., Stoskopf, M.K., Levine, J.F., "Time and financial costs of programs for live trapping feral cats," J Am Vet Med Assoc, V225(9), 2004, 1403-5.

10.) Wallace, J.L., & Levy, J.K., "Population characteristics of feral cats admitted to seven trap-neuter-return programs in the United States," J Feline Med Surg, V8(4), 2006, 279-84.

11.) Scott, K.C., Levy, J.K., & Crawford, P.C., "Characteristics of free-roaming cats evaluated in a trap-neuter-return program," J Am Vet Med Assoc, V221(8), 2002, 1136-8.

12.) Hughes, K.L., Slater, M.R., & Haller, L., "The effects of implementing a feral cat spay/neuter program in a Florida county animal control service," J Appl Anim Welf Sci, V5(4), 2002, 285-98.

13.) Levy, J.K., Woods, J.E., Turick, S.L., & Etheridge, D.L., "Number of unowned free-roaming cats in a college community in the southern United States and characteristics of community residents who feed them," J Am Vet Med Assoc, V223(2), 2003, 202-5.

14.) Centonza, L.A., & Levy, J.K., "Characteristics of free-roaming cats and their caretakers," J Am Vet Med Assoc, V220(11), 2002, 1627-33.

15.) Levy, J.K., Gale, D.W., & Gale, L.A., "Evaluation of the effect of a long-term trap-neuter-return and adoption program on a free-roaming cat population," J Am Vet Med Assoc, V222(11), 2003, 42-6.

16.) Fischer, S.M., Quest, C.M., Dubovi, E.J., Davis R.D., Tucker, S.J., Friary, J.A., Crawford, P.C., Ricke, T.A., & Levy, J.K., "Response of feral cats to vaccination at the time of neutering," J Am Vet Med Assoc, V230(1), 2007, 52-8.